Facial Feminization Surgery
He is well known around the world for his achievements in Cranial Facial Aesthetic Surgery and especially Facial Feminization Surgery, in which field he developed procedures that have been adopted by many of his colleagues. His target is remodeling the face into average female proportions in a natural harmonious way without exaggerations.
Clinics in Antwerp, Belgium
In the Singelbergclinic and in the hospital he implements surgical procedures which combine bone structure and soft tissue operations preferably in one session.
The procedures are highly individual and depend on the archetype of the client’s face. The archetype dictates the limits in which the facial feminization procedure can be performed.
Passing at first glance appraisal
What is passing? This is the day you throw your male outfit in the bin and step out as a woman into the outer circle of your social life as discrete as possible. The goal is male to female gender reassignment in the face, so that you will pass at first glance appraisal.
Dr. Frans Noornan van der Dussen developed surgical procedures that do not leave any visible scars at all and also result in a swift recovery. The procedures are a combination of bone structure and soft tissue operations in only one surgical intervention. The advantage is that all anatomical units in the face can be mutually fine tuned in a harmonious way.
Three pillars of beauty
All procedures are founded on the three pillars of beauty: Proportions, Symmetry and Clarity. This results in delicate jaws, nice pronunciation of the cheekbones, small chin, large eyes, full lips and a nice dental show.
Craniofacial surgery is a surgical subspecialty of maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery, and ENT that deals with congenital and acquired deformities of the skull, face, and jaws. Although craniofacial treatment often involves manipulation of bone, craniofacial surgery is not tissue-specific, i.e., craniofacial surgeons deal with bone, skin, muscle, teeth, etc. Craniofacial surgery does not, however, include surgery of the brain or eye.
Defects typically treated by craniofacial surgeons include craniosynostosis(isolated and syndromic), rare craniofacial clefts, acute and chronic sequellae of facial fractures, cleft lip and palate, micrognathia, Treacher Collins Syndrome, Apert’s Syndrome, Crouzon’s Syndrome, hemifacial microsomia and many others.
Facial feminization surgery (FFS)refers to surgical procedures that alter the human face to bring its features closer in shape and size to those of an average female human. FFS includes various bony and soft tissue procedures (see below) though the term “FFS” is generally not regarded to include facial hairremoval. FFS techniques are derived from maxillofacialand reconstructive surgery as well as general plastic and cosmetic surgery. Douglas Ousterhout and Frans Noorman van der Dussen pioneered what is now called FFS during the 1980s and 1990s in the U.S.A and Europe . There are only a small number of surgeons globally who specialise in FFS.
FFS has become increasingly sought after by transsexualwomen and many feel that it is just as important or even more important for them than sex reassignment surgery(SRS) because it helps them integrate socially as women. While most FFS patients are transsexual women, some non-transsexual women who feel that their faces are too masculine will also undergo FFS. FFS is occasionally sought by cross-dressersand drag queens.
To be considered a candidate for gender reassignment surgery, a person must have a psychological evaluation and be diagnosed with Gender Identity Disorder from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, published by the American Psychiatric Association.
They must have signed letters from a psychiatrist and another mental health care provider; must live as a woman — or man — for a year before surgery; and must make a commitment to undergo psychotherapy throughout the process if they want to have genital surgery.
“Not everyone wants genital surgery and not everyone needs facial surgery” Dr Noorman van der Dussen says, but most patiens want one or more things in their face changed.
Here is a list of the surgical procedures most frequently performed during FFS and the reasoning behind them:
In males the hairline is often higher than in females and usually has receded corners above the temples that give it an “M” shape. The hairline can be moved forwards and given a more rounded shape either with a procedure called a “scalp advance” where the scalp is lifted and repositioned or with hair transplantation.
Hair transplants can also be used to thicken up hair that has been thinned by male pattern baldness. If too much hair has been lost, it will not be possible to correct hairline problems.
Males tend to have a horizontal ridge of bone running across the forehead just above eyebrow level called the brow ridgeor “brow bossing” while female foreheads tend to be smoother, flatter and have less bossing, or bossing that project just below eyebrow level. The outer segments of the bossing that the eyebrows sit on are called the “supraorbital rims”.
The section of bossing between the eyebrows (the glabella) sits over a hollow area called the frontal sinus. Because the frontal sinus is hollow it can be more difficult to remove bossing there. If the bone over the frontal sinus is thick enough the bossing can be removed by simply shaving down the bone, however if the wall of bone is too thin it may not be possible to shave the bossing away completely without breaking through the wall into the frontal sinus. FFS surgeons have taken 3 main approaches to resolving this problem:
The 3 main approaches to solve the problem, are divided in 3 types :
Type 1 : shaving
Type 2 : shaving and closing the small perforations in the anterior wall of the frontal sinus with little flat pieces of bone (bone chips), sometimes fixed with miniscrews
Type 3 : most commonly done in Dr Noorman van der Dussen’s hands :